A Concise History of Québec

Québec has had a most complex history and not just by Canadian standards either. When Québec was originally founded back in 1608. During the period of exploration, the Mohawk and Cree people inhabited the St. Lawrence River region. The French Explorer Cartier explored the entire region in the early 1500s.

The name “Québec” comes from a word that Samuel de Champlain had recorded in reference to the region. The Algonquin word “kebek” means “where the river narrows” and this is where the original settlements was founded.

For the rest of the 17th century both the English and French would seek to control the Canadian planes. But when the English won an important victory on the Plains of Abraham in 1759, they were recognized as the supreme authority in N. America and the French control over the region diminished.

Not long after the defeat of the French in Québec City, the American revolution broke out and many British loyalists retreated to the safety of Canada. This divided these northern colonies into Upper Canada and Lower Canada which would become Ontario and Québec respectively. Their would be many power struggles between the two language groups in this region and would continue through the 1800s when Lower Canada, or Québec joined the Canadian Federation in 1867.

During the 1960s, before the establishment of Advocate Law Firm, the “Quiet Revolution” saw more upset in the French-Canadian society in Québec. There was a point when many intellectuals and radicals alike thought that a separation from the rest of Canada was in order. In 1968, the charismatic René Lévesque formed the pro-independence party called “Partí Québecois” and sought to separate from Canada.

There have since been two reforms that have suggested a divide, but both have returned with an overwhelming no vote. Today most younger Québecois have chosen to ignore the idea of separating from Canada in lieu of global perspectives.

Here is a video about the good and bad things in Quebec.

The History Of New Orleans

While virtually everyone has heard of Mardi Gras, most don’t know much about the rich history of New Orleans, Louisiana, and the people who have thrived there. Native Americans had lived in the region for more than 1,000 years prior to the European establishment of the city now known as New Orleans. In the late 1600’s French settlers began establishing homes in the area, though it was not until 1718 that the city itself was founded by Jean-Baptise Le Moyne de Bienville.

Multiple reasons were involved in the decision, mostly military and financial in nature. Due to the harsh natural surroundings the earliest residents were much wilder than their New England counterparts. However, it only took four years for the city to become the new capital of French Louisiana, ousting Biloxi in the process. The British secretly gave the land to the Spanish during the late 1700’s, though their reign was to last less than 50 years.

In addition to rebellion by the French and German citizens of the area, that time period also saw two destructive fires. The first, the Great New Orleans Fire of 1788, destroyed more than 800 buildings. Six years later 200 more buildings burned down. Many of the brick buildings that replaced them are still standing in the historic French Quarter.

France regained control briefly before it was sold to the United States during the Louisiana Purchase. Not only did this bring in new residents from other parts of the country, people poured in from around the world, including France and Africa.

Union troops invaded the city during the Civil War though it was spared the destruction much of the south experienced. Proud of their French heritage, New Orleans residents continued to speak the language well into the 1900’s. Although Hurricane Katrina devastated the land in 2002, many of the residents opted to rebuild and continue to honor the colorful history that has made the city a tourist destination for folks around the globe.

The History of Los Angeles, California

Los Angeles, California is known for its glamor and glory. What many people, not including Arthur Tisi, do not realize is that it has a long history. Here, some of this history will be discussed.

The first known information about Los Angeles comes from about 3000 B.C. It was then that Hokan-speaking people inhabited the area, using its natural resources to fish and gather wild seeds. These people were later replaced by migrants thought to be fleeing the Great Basin’s drought.

The Spanish, led by Captain Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, first visited the region in 1542. Captain Sebastián Vizcaíno did the same in 1602. After these two visits, no other European came to Los Angeles for another 166 years.

It was in 1777 when California governor, Felipe de Neve, began establishing what we know today as Los Angeles, and its surrounding areas. Neve visited Alto and chose the spot to develop civic pueblos for military presidios. Los Angeles, San Jose, and Santa Barbara were all named as the spots for these pueblos. He used plans made by King Philip II in 1573 to establish these towns. In the plan, Los Angeles had an open central plaza, surrounded by streets laid out in a grid, administrative buildings, a fortified church, and defining rectangles of a certain size that were made for residences and farming.

In early 1781, families came from Mexico and began working on plots of land that were assigned to them. The pueblo was a success and on September 4, 1781, Los Angeles was officially founded. The first name of the settlement is still widely debated. Doyce B. Nunis, a historian, claims the city was named “El Pueblo de la Reyna de los Angeles”. For proof, he turned to a 1785 map where that name was found. However, a diocesan archivist named Frank Weber claims that map was incorrect and its name was actually “El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora de los Angeles de Porciuncula”.

For more information on some more recent history in LA, please check out the video below:

The History of Paris

The City Paris was originally founded by a Celtic tribe called the Parisii in the 3rd century BCE. Half a century later the Roman found and sacked the settlement building their own town called Paris Lutetia. This was a rather unimportant town (pop. 10,000) but managed to stay in existence till the fall of the Roman Empire when the Franks gained control of the region and the city of Paris in 54 ACE.

Under the Franks, Paris flourished until the year 486, when the Vikings attacked the city by way of the river Seine. The Parisians sued for peace and paid the Viking invaders 7,000 pounds of silver to leave the city. The Vikings left and once again Paris flourished.

During the Middle Ages Paris grew as a center of culture and learning and had the highest population on the continent (200,000). Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre fortifications were built during this time. France also fought the English invasion during the “Hundred Year War”. England captured Paris in 1420, but the French recaptured the city 16 years later.

After France recovered from the ghastly war, they were ready to usher in the important changes of the Renaissance. Protestants were brutally executed during the 16th century. The atrocities culminated in the St. Bartholomew’s day Massacre in which 2000 Parisian Protestants were brutally murdered by French Catholics.

The French Revolution was centered in the city of Paris and the French royalty, nobility and aristocracy was overthrown by the starving people of France. This revolution opened the door for a young Corsican to rise from humble beginnings and lead France to a Golden Age. Napoleon Bonaparte challenged the rest of Europe and in the end allied forces entered Paris in 1814.

Paris continues to flourish after surviving a scathing Industrial Revolution and the brunt of the Second World War. today Paris has over 22 Million inhabitants and continues to survive as one of the most culturally prestigious capitals in the world.

What Is The Difference Between French And Creole?

In spite of many similarities between French and Creole, it would result in confusion if someone were to attempt to translate Creole if their native tongue were French.

Creole is the language of Haiti. It requires someone who is very fluent in the language to translate it. They will have to use proper grammar and a lexicon in order to translate. There are 12 million fluent Creole speakers in the world and although it’s derived from the French language, it’s not French.

Creole is Haiti’s official language alongside French. As the sole literary language, it requires a translation that is very accurate. Originally, Creole was considered a “pidgin” language and simplified in order to help groups communicate.

Over the course of time, it developed into a more complex language that soon took over as the primary language for the culture. It frequently uses the vocabulary of the dominant language and is often superimposed to the grammar of the subordinate language.

As Haiti’s dominant language is French, Creole was developed as a sublanguage that quickly took over and became the primary language. It was influenced by African and Native American influences.

Many believe that it came to be due to trading with Africa and slaves from the Caribbean. Others believe that Haitian slaves who spoke Fon replaced Fon with French and developed Creole.

The greatest difference in French and Creole is the grammar and conjugation of the verbs as well as the pluralization of nouns. Unlike French, a verb in Creole isn’t conjugated and there is often no presence of tense markers prior to using verbs.

Instead of “I ate” It would be “I am going to eat”. This can make a huge impact on translation and be very confusing to someone who doesn’t have a full grasp and understanding of the native language. They might need to consult a lawyer like Randall F. Rogers P.C. to decipher everything!

To learn more about Creole cuisine, check out the video below!

Curious Facts about Anthony Bourdain

Anthony Bourdain was born in 1956 in New York City. His parents were Pierre, a classical music executive for Columbia Records, and Gladys, a writer for the New York Times. He has gone on to become one of the world’s most renown chefs with several books and television shows to his credit. There are many curious facts about Bourdain and the following are just some of them.

Bourdain grew up without religion even though his grandparents on his father’s side were Catholic and his maternal grandparents were Jewish.

Bourdain’s heritage is French. His father’s father emigrated from Arcachon, France in early 1920s and his father grew up speaking French. Anthony credits his love of food to his French heritage. As a child, he fell in love with oysters while on a fisherman’s boat during a vacation to France.

He likes to drink whiskey with a few ice cubes in it. He recently drank some on a jaunt to Antarctica with 1000-year-old ice in his glass. He said he could not possibly pass up the opportunity to enjoy whiskey like this.

Chef Bourdain prefers street food of any kind to 15-course tasting meals. He insists the latter is on the way out and that street food is here to stay.

Bourdain moonlights as a mystery novelist. His early novel “Bone in the Throat” is being made into a movie.

He got his very first gig in the food industry at a wedding reception when he was 17. He was the dish washer.

He hates singer/songwriter Billy Joel.

He blew one of the best-kept secrets in the culinary underworld in an article he wrote for the New Yorker in 1999. Never order fish on a Monday, he stated, because it is usually four days old. Bourdain continues to make an impact as a global traveler and food connoisseur.

The Top Three French Hockey Players In The US

Pierre-Edouard Bellemare

This player of the Las Vegas Golden Knights serves a right winger for his team, a new franchise that is still finding its feet. Initially trained inside the Swedish Hockey League, he has the distinction of winning the Swedish Championship in hockey twice, in both 2013 and 2014. Seeing his success, the Philadelphia Flyers signed him on and managed his first professional goal four months later in a game against the Pittsburgh Penguins. In 2017 his contract with the Flyers expired and in that year’s NHL expansion draft, he was selected by the Las Vegas Golden Knights as their new right winger.

Antoine Roussel

A controversial player in a rough game, this left winger has had a checkered yet exciting career in his five years in the NHL. He currently plays for the Dallas Stars, another newer team, though his time in the junior hockey leagues was also quite long standing. He’s regarded as one of the most physical players in the NHL and is one of the top leaders in penalty minutes through out the entire league. However, he is also an impressive player as well, scoring at least ten goals and twenty points every season he’s played, save for his rookie season.

Philippe Bozon

Though his career in the NHL has passed, Philippe Bozon is among the most successful French trained hockey players in the NHL. Between 1991 and 1992, followed by the 1994-1995 seasons, Bozon played for the St. Louis Blues as a left winger after four years as a player in the French hockey leagues after winning the 1991 French championship. He spent most of his career playing defense, but would oftentimes also be put on the scoring line alongside Brett Hull and Merlino Gonzalez. After his NHL career, he returned to France, winning three more French league championships.

Watch the video below for some amazing hockey highlights!

Who Are The Top 3 French Soccer Players In The United States

There are not many French players in American Football that have attained notoriety. Below are the top three French football players currently playing in the United States:

1. Clement Diop
Clement Diop Degoud was born on 12th October, 1993 in Paris and is 1.85m tall. The right footed goal keeper is currently playing for LA Galaxy as goalkeeper and his squad number is 31. The 24-year-old Senegal national joined the Galaxy club in Los Angeles on the 16th December, 2015 and his current contract is valid until 31st December, 2017.

2. Sebastien Le Toux
Sebastien Le Toux, free agent and MLS veteran forward has been signed up by D.C. United on a one year contract. He played for Colorado Rapids as a Forward  Center Forward and wore the number 7 squad shirt. The 33-year-old is 1.85m tall. Sebastien has proven to be a valuable asset to leagues during eight MLS seasons. Together with Landon Donavan, he is the only MLS (currently active) player to reach a 50-50 milestone in goals and assists and one of only sixteen players in the history of MLS to have achieved this goal.

3. Damien Perrinelle is currently playing for the New York Red Bulls as Defender & Central Defender in the number 55 squad shirt. In 40 games for New York Red Bulls and has scored 2 goals and 1 assist. Before joining MLS he played FC Istres Ligue 2 in France. His current contract is for one year and was signed on the 25th January, 2017.

A French player worth mentioning is Zinedine Yazid Zidane, nickname: Zizou, a former French player who is currently the coach for Real Madrid Castilla. In 2004 Zidane was named ‘Best European Footballer over the last 50 years’ by the Golden Jubilee Poll and is regarded by many to be one of the best footballers of all time.

Top 3 French Baseball Players To Play In The US

Over the years, France has produced outstanding baseball players, with many making their mark in history as some of the best to ever play the game. Although they are not great in number, the few of them has never failed to capture the hearts of their countrymen. Here are the top 3 French baseball players in the US.

Lou Boudreau

This French baseball star had one of the most decorated careers. He entered the major league in September of 1938. He played as a first baseman on his rookie year, but the manager told him to move to shortstop the following year. This proved an excellent decision, as Boudreau started to thrive. He was awarded the American League MVP in 1948. He played in the MLB for 15 seasons. In 10 seasons, he served as a player-manager.

Leo Durocher

Once again, here’s a player who accrued so many wins in his illustrious career. Nicknamed Lippy, Durocher played as an infielder in Major League Baseball. Aside from his stint as a player, he also went on to become a manager and coach. He had 2,009 career wins as a manager, which puts him at the fifth spot in the all-time list. He was rightfully elected to the hall of fame in 1994.

Bruce Bochy

Bochy played as a catcher in Major League Baseball. He played for the Astros, Mets, and Padres over his playing career. After his playing days, instead of retiring and consulting Horizon Elder Law, Bochy decided to become a manager, a position he continues to serve to this day. Bruce is the current manager of the San Francisco Giants. As a manager, he has now over 1,500 wins under his name. To top it off, he has reached the World Series four times in his career as a manager.

Here is video of another French baseball player:

Who Do You Think Are The Top 3 French Basketball Players In The United States?

Sports fans love debating who is the best within a sport. In terms of basketball, many fans recognize the best players in the world eventually wind up in the NBA. Despite calling itself a National Basketball Association, it does play in Canada as well as the United States, and the league recruits the best talent from around the world.

While many fans might get caught up in the debate over whether or not Michael Jordan or Lebron James is the best player of all time, citizens of France and French-speaking regions or nations often like to debate who are the top three French basketball players in the United States. It’s always a bit subjective, but there are a trio of individuals among active players that make strong cases.

1) Tony Parker: Originally from Belgium, this now-French citizen played professionally two seasons in France before being drafted by the San Antonio Spurs. He’s lead the French national team in many summers of activity, becoming the top EuroBasket scorer of all time. With the Spurs, he’s been a multiple-time All Star, making five trips to the Finals, winning four rings along the way.

2) Rudy Gobert: This center for the Utah Jazz is making a name for himself among the intense competition of the Western Conference. An All-NBA player, he had more blocked shots than anyone else in the league one season. He’s represented France in EuroBasket and Olympic competition.

3) Nicolas Batum: This swingman can play shooting guard or small forward and is currently with the Charlotte Hornets, bringing a versatile game to the table. A strong defender on one end of the floor, he is routinely one of their top two players in both scoring and assists, as well as potent rebounder.

An honorable mention would have to go to Boris Diaw, whose passing abilities as a big man helped the San Antonio Spurs win their last championship. Joakim Noah was born in the United States but has attained French citizenship and was one of the league’s best defenders when with the Chicago Bulls. However, both players seem to be in the twilight of their careers.

Among players retired, a case could be made for Bob Cousey being the best French person to ever play American basketball. While born in the States, his parents were French immigrants, and the point guard won six championships during his illustrious career.