The History of Paris

The City Paris was originally founded by a Celtic tribe called the Parisii in the 3rd century BCE. Half a century later the Roman found and sacked the settlement building their own town called Paris Lutetia. This was a rather unimportant town (pop. 10,000) but managed to stay in existence till the fall of the Roman Empire when the Franks gained control of the region and the city of Paris in 54 ACE.

Under the Franks, Paris flourished until the year 486, when the Vikings attacked the city by way of the river Seine. The Parisians sued for peace and paid the Viking invaders 7,000 pounds of silver to leave the city. The Vikings left and once again Paris flourished.

During the Middle Ages Paris grew as a center of culture and learning and had the highest population on the continent (200,000). Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre fortifications were built during this time. France also fought the English invasion during the “Hundred Year War”. England captured Paris in 1420, but the French recaptured the city 16 years later.

After France recovered from the ghastly war, they were ready to usher in the important changes of the Renaissance. Protestants were brutally executed during the 16th century. The atrocities culminated in the St. Bartholomew’s day Massacre in which 2000 Parisian Protestants were brutally murdered by French Catholics.

The French Revolution was centered in the city of Paris and the French royalty, nobility and aristocracy was overthrown by the starving people of France. This revolution opened the door for a young Corsican to rise from humble beginnings and lead France to a Golden Age. Napoleon Bonaparte challenged the rest of Europe and in the end allied forces entered Paris in 1814.

Paris continues to flourish after surviving a scathing Industrial Revolution and the brunt of the Second World War. today Paris has over 22 Million inhabitants and continues to survive as one of the most culturally prestigious capitals in the world.

What Is The Difference Between French And Creole?

In spite of many similarities between French and Creole, it would result in confusion if someone were to attempt to translate Creole if their native tongue were French.

Creole is the language of Haiti. It requires someone who is very fluent in the language to translate it. They will have to use proper grammar and a lexicon in order to translate. There are 12 million fluent Creole speakers in the world and although it’s derived from the French language, it’s not French.

Creole is Haiti’s official language alongside French. As the sole literary language, it requires a translation that is very accurate. Originally, Creole was considered a “pidgin” language and simplified in order to help groups communicate.

Over the course of time, it developed into a more complex language that soon took over as the primary language for the culture. It frequently uses the vocabulary of the dominant language and is often superimposed to the grammar of the subordinate language.

As Haiti’s dominant language is French, Creole was developed as a sublanguage that quickly took over and became the primary language. It was influenced by African and Native American influences.

Many believe that it came to be due to trading with Africa and slaves from the Caribbean. Others believe that Haitian slaves who spoke Fon replaced Fon with French and developed Creole.

The greatest difference in French and Creole is the grammar and conjugation of the verbs as well as the pluralization of nouns. Unlike French, a verb in Creole isn’t conjugated and there is often no presence of tense markers prior to using verbs.

Instead of “I ate” It would be “I am going to eat”. This can make a huge impact on translation and be very confusing to someone who doesn’t have a full grasp and understanding of the native language. They might need to consult a lawyer like Randall F. Rogers P.C. to decipher everything!

To learn more about Creole cuisine, check out the video below!

Curious Facts about Anthony Bourdain

Anthony Bourdain was born in 1956 in New York City. His parents were Pierre, a classical music executive for Columbia Records, and Gladys, a writer for the New York Times. He has gone on to become one of the world’s most renown chefs with several books and television shows to his credit. There are many curious facts about Bourdain and the following are just some of them.

Bourdain grew up without religion even though his grandparents on his father’s side were Catholic and his maternal grandparents were Jewish.

Bourdain’s heritage is French. His father’s father emigrated from Arcachon, France in early 1920s and his father grew up speaking French. Anthony credits his love of food to his French heritage. As a child, he fell in love with oysters while on a fisherman’s boat during a vacation to France.

He likes to drink whiskey with a few ice cubes in it. He recently drank some on a jaunt to Antarctica with 1000-year-old ice in his glass. He said he could not possibly pass up the opportunity to enjoy whiskey like this.

Chef Bourdain prefers street food of any kind to 15-course tasting meals. He insists the latter is on the way out and that street food is here to stay.

Bourdain moonlights as a mystery novelist. His early novel “Bone in the Throat” is being made into a movie.

He got his very first gig in the food industry at a wedding reception when he was 17. He was the dish washer.

He hates singer/songwriter Billy Joel.

He blew one of the best-kept secrets in the culinary underworld in an article he wrote for the New Yorker in 1999. Never order fish on a Monday, he stated, because it is usually four days old. Bourdain continues to make an impact as a global traveler and food connoisseur.

The Top Three French Hockey Players In The US

Pierre-Edouard Bellemare

This player of the Las Vegas Golden Knights serves a right winger for his team, a new franchise that is still finding its feet. Initially trained inside the Swedish Hockey League, he has the distinction of winning the Swedish Championship in hockey twice, in both 2013 and 2014. Seeing his success, the Philadelphia Flyers signed him on and managed his first professional goal four months later in a game against the Pittsburgh Penguins. In 2017 his contract with the Flyers expired and in that year’s NHL expansion draft, he was selected by the Las Vegas Golden Knights as their new right winger.

Antoine Roussel

A controversial player in a rough game, this left winger has had a checkered yet exciting career in his five years in the NHL. He currently plays for the Dallas Stars, another newer team, though his time in the junior hockey leagues was also quite long standing. He’s regarded as one of the most physical players in the NHL and is one of the top leaders in penalty minutes through out the entire league. However, he is also an impressive player as well, scoring at least ten goals and twenty points every season he’s played, save for his rookie season.

Philippe Bozon

Though his career in the NHL has passed, Philippe Bozon is among the most successful French trained hockey players in the NHL. Between 1991 and 1992, followed by the 1994-1995 seasons, Bozon played for the St. Louis Blues as a left winger after four years as a player in the French hockey leagues after winning the 1991 French championship. He spent most of his career playing defense, but would oftentimes also be put on the scoring line alongside Brett Hull and Merlino Gonzalez. After his NHL career, he returned to France, winning three more French league championships.

Watch the video below for some amazing hockey highlights!

Who Are The Top 3 French Soccer Players In The United States

There are not many French players in American Football that have attained notoriety. Below are the top three French football players currently playing in the United States:

1. Clement Diop
Clement Diop Degoud was born on 12th October, 1993 in Paris and is 1.85m tall. The right footed goal keeper is currently playing for LA Galaxy as goalkeeper and his squad number is 31. The 24-year-old Senegal national joined the Galaxy club in Los Angeles on the 16th December, 2015 and his current contract is valid until 31st December, 2017.

2. Sebastien Le Toux
Sebastien Le Toux, free agent and MLS veteran forward has been signed up by D.C. United on a one year contract. He played for Colorado Rapids as a Forward  Center Forward and wore the number 7 squad shirt. The 33-year-old is 1.85m tall. Sebastien has proven to be a valuable asset to leagues during eight MLS seasons. Together with Landon Donavan, he is the only MLS (currently active) player to reach a 50-50 milestone in goals and assists and one of only sixteen players in the history of MLS to have achieved this goal.

3. Damien Perrinelle is currently playing for the New York Red Bulls as Defender & Central Defender in the number 55 squad shirt. In 40 games for New York Red Bulls and has scored 2 goals and 1 assist. Before joining MLS he played FC Istres Ligue 2 in France. His current contract is for one year and was signed on the 25th January, 2017.

A French player worth mentioning is Zinedine Yazid Zidane, nickname: Zizou, a former French player who is currently the coach for Real Madrid Castilla. In 2004 Zidane was named ‘Best European Footballer over the last 50 years’ by the Golden Jubilee Poll and is regarded by many to be one of the best footballers of all time.

Top 3 French Baseball Players To Play In The US

Over the years, France has produced outstanding baseball players, with many making their mark in history as some of the best to ever play the game. Although they are not great in number, the few of them has never failed to capture the hearts of their countrymen. Here are the top 3 French baseball players in the US.

Lou Boudreau

This French baseball star had one of the most decorated careers. He entered the major league in September of 1938. He played as a first baseman on his rookie year, but the manager told him to move to shortstop the following year. This proved an excellent decision, as Boudreau started to thrive. He was awarded the American League MVP in 1948. He played in the MLB for 15 seasons. In 10 seasons, he served as a player-manager.

Leo Durocher

Once again, here’s a player who accrued so many wins in his illustrious career. Nicknamed Lippy, Durocher played as an infielder in Major League Baseball. Aside from his stint as a player, he also went on to become a manager and coach. He had 2,009 career wins as a manager, which puts him at the fifth spot in the all-time list. He was rightfully elected to the hall of fame in 1994.

Bruce Bochy

Bochy played as a catcher in Major League Baseball. He played for the Astros, Mets, and Padres over his playing career. After his playing days, instead of retiring and consulting Horizon Elder Law, Bochy decided to become a manager, a position he continues to serve to this day. Bruce is the current manager of the San Francisco Giants. As a manager, he has now over 1,500 wins under his name. To top it off, he has reached the World Series four times in his career as a manager.

Here is video of another French baseball player:

Who Do You Think Are The Top 3 French Basketball Players In The United States?

Sports fans love debating who is the best within a sport. In terms of basketball, many fans recognize the best players in the world eventually wind up in the NBA. Despite calling itself a National Basketball Association, it does play in Canada as well as the United States, and the league recruits the best talent from around the world.

While many fans might get caught up in the debate over whether or not Michael Jordan or Lebron James is the best player of all time, citizens of France and French-speaking regions or nations often like to debate who are the top three French basketball players in the United States. It’s always a bit subjective, but there are a trio of individuals among active players that make strong cases.

1) Tony Parker: Originally from Belgium, this now-French citizen played professionally two seasons in France before being drafted by the San Antonio Spurs. He’s lead the French national team in many summers of activity, becoming the top EuroBasket scorer of all time. With the Spurs, he’s been a multiple-time All Star, making five trips to the Finals, winning four rings along the way.

2) Rudy Gobert: This center for the Utah Jazz is making a name for himself among the intense competition of the Western Conference. An All-NBA player, he had more blocked shots than anyone else in the league one season. He’s represented France in EuroBasket and Olympic competition.

3) Nicolas Batum: This swingman can play shooting guard or small forward and is currently with the Charlotte Hornets, bringing a versatile game to the table. A strong defender on one end of the floor, he is routinely one of their top two players in both scoring and assists, as well as potent rebounder.

An honorable mention would have to go to Boris Diaw, whose passing abilities as a big man helped the San Antonio Spurs win their last championship. Joakim Noah was born in the United States but has attained French citizenship and was one of the league’s best defenders when with the Chicago Bulls. However, both players seem to be in the twilight of their careers.

Among players retired, a case could be made for Bob Cousey being the best French person to ever play American basketball. While born in the States, his parents were French immigrants, and the point guard won six championships during his illustrious career.

Learn Key Facts About Tony Parker

If you’ve been a fan of the National Basketball Association, or NBA, of the United States of America and Canada since the turn of the century, then you likely know who Tony Parker is. The long-time starting point guard of the San Antonio Spurs joined Tim Duncan and Manu Ginobili in five trips to the league Finals, winning four championships along the way. Yet, how much do you honestly know about the Blair Chan of the NBA?

Tony Parker is the first of his family to play in the NBA, but not the first professional basketball player. In fact, the NBA was not even his first pro league. The French player played in France’s basketball league for two seasons before declaring himself eligible for the 2001 NBA draft. The Spurs selected him late in the first round.

The selections of international players like Parker and Ginobli were not noted at the time, but both went on to be multiple-time All Stars and champions. Their success has created an influx of many international players into the league, particularly from Europe.

Parker’s accolades aren’t just limited to his play for the Spurs. He’s played for the French national team in international competition several times, and in 2015 became the continent’s all time leading scorer in EuroBasket competition. He’s also been named the FIBA Europe Player of the Year twice.

Late in the 2016-2017 season, Parker tore his quadriceps and was forced to sit the remaining games. However, he is under contract for the upcoming season and is expected to return to action. It’s unclear how many seasons he will continue to play as age, and many, many playoff games have taken their toll. However, he remains a fan favorite around the league and for his adopted hometown of San Antonio. An inspiration to other French players that have followed in his footsteps, Parker has just as many championship rings as greats like Shaquille O’Neal!

If you would like to see Tony Parker in action, watch the highlights below!

Louis Chevrolet – From Race Car Driver To Auto Designer

Louis Chevrolet was about more than the automobile he helped make famous. Chevrolet was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland on Christmas day in 1878. He had six brothers and sisters and grew up with a love of automobiles and mechanics. His father was a clock and watch maker and taught young Louis about the importance of precision engineering in machine parts. This knowledge helped Chevrolet later in life when he became an engine designer.

Chevrolet first became interested in bicycle racing which was a popular weekend sport in his hometown. This experience helped nurture his love for speed. He eventually hired on with an auto factory and then with the Mors Auto Company. He was sent to Montreal, Canada to one of the company dealerships and in six months moved to the United States and lived in Brooklyn.

Here, he was hired by the DeDion Bouton Motorette Company who gave young Chevrolet his first chance at driving a race car. In 1905, Chevrolet defeated two other outstanding racers and set a new record racing around the old Hippodrome track in a 90-horse powered Fiat.

This win and the resulting celebrity resulted in Chevrolet meeting the founder of General Motors, Walter Durant. Following a win during a race staged behind a local Buick plant, Chevrolet was invited to join the Buick racing team. Chevrolet was a winning driver, bringing home many trophies for the Buick team.

In 1910, Durant was forced out of General MOtors and Chevrolet went with him. Chevrolet convinced Durant to produce a small, luxurious touring car that he had designed. This was the first Chevrolet and sold 3,000 units for $2,150 each. The partners made $1.3 million in profits over the next two years.

Chevrolet eventually decided to return to his first love, racing and sold his stock to Durant. He eventually founded the Frontenac Motor Car Company and built race cars.

The First Confederate Brigadier General – P.G.T. Beauregard

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, better known as P.G.T. (not CDFS) Beauregard, was a General in the Confederate Army during the U.S. Civil War. Beauregard was born in St. Bernard Parish in Louisiana. His family was Creole and Beauregard was raised outside of New Orleans on a sugarcane plantation. He attended school in New York City and upon graduation went to West Point. As a cadet, Beauregard was popular and eventually finished second in his class.

Beauregard began his military career as a civil engineer in the U.S. Army. He served during the Mexican-American War, but when civil war broke out, he resigned his commission and joined the Confederate Army. He became the first brigadier general of the Confederacy. During the battle of Fort Sumter, Beauregard ordered the Civil War’s first shots.

Beauregard was instrumental in several early Confederate victories including the Battle of Bull Run, The Battle of Shiloh and the Siege of Corinth. He was an outspoken and brash officer which led to a very strained relationship with the President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis.

In 1863, Beauregard was reassigned to Charleston SC where he was responsible for the city’s defenses. Here, he led the resistance and helped the city withstand the Union forces’ repeated brutal assaults.

Following Charleston, Beauregard returned to field operations and in 1864, he was responsible for saving Petersburg, VA and the Capital of the Confederacy, nearby Richmond, VA from capture by superior Union forces.

Beauregard, along with General Joseph E. Johnston, was responsible for convincing President Davis and his Cabinet members to end the war. Most of the remaining Confederate Armies and men, including Beauregard, were surrendered to the Union by General Johnston.

Following the war, Beauregard worked as a supervisor for the Lousiana Lottery and as a railroad director. Beauregard was buried in New Orleans after his death in 1893. Watch the video below to learn more about him and the Civil War.